Combats are the consequence of movements, they occur when two nations (major or minor) have units in the same region.

Definition of the combat roles
Combat will start by establishing which side is the attacker and which is the defender. The rule is that the stack of units present in the region since the longer period of time (i.e. rounds) is the defender.
In case of multiple attack, i.e. involving more than two nations, then all nations after the first two will wait their ‘turn’, being involved only when one of the first two nation present has been eliminated.

Duration of combats
Each combat lasts a maximum of 20 rounds, at the end of which the attacker must retreat if he has not won.
Those 20 rounds follow directly the sequence of the orders of movements of the players, thus an army that makes its move during the 3rd order issue will arrive on the battlefield only during round #3, and an army sent moving during order #20 will arrive for the last (20th) round of battle.

Bonus / malus in combats
Many factors influence fighting :
- The status of defender or attacker: defenders always shoot and apply their hits first
- Terrain that brings bonus / malus to both the attacker and defender, those bonus / malus values are shown in the region information window
- Fortifications (double the strength of the defenders on first round)
- Industrial Centers (double the strength of defenders all the time)
- The combat values of the units: the offensives and defensive values are different and specifi for each of the nations, while the minor nations all share the same

Resolution of Battles
During the 20 rounds of combat, the various stacks enter the battlefield according to their movement sequence order rank (see previous section).
Once two stacks are present on the battlefield, one is the attacker, the other the defender.

 If fleet are present on both sides, then a naval action battle is fought first, in order to define if the troops on board (if any) are allowed to land or not. If the attacker wins that part, its surviving troops land in the region.
 Then the defender fires and try to inflict losses. To do so, he must roll for each unit a 10-sided dice (D10) and reach a value higher than its defensive value, modified by terrain bonus or malus.
 Each unit of the defender that succeeds this will inflict one loss on the attacker.
 Then the surviving attacker fires back and try to inflict losses. To do so, he must roll for each unit a 10-sided dice (D10) and reach a value higher than its offensive value, modified by terrain bonus or malus.
 Each unit of the attacker that succeeds this will inflict one loss on the defender.
 The round ends when each side applied its losses.
 If one side is fully eliminated, then the battle is over.
 If not, a moral loss is calculated, the side suffering the most losses (in percentage of its original total, not in numbers) receiving a 1 point of moral loss
 When a side has a moral value that reaches zero (0), the nit must retreat (see next) and the battle is over.

If none of the above happened, the following round starts, if there are stacks of units from two different nations present in the region.
Those stacks may be the same as those from the previous round if none was eliminated or retreated. Otherwise, it may also be the stack of the winner of the previous round, who then will become the new ‘defender’ against a stack arriving freshly during that new upcoming round.

Case of Reinforcement Moves
If a new (third) stack arrives on the battlefield and it belongs to a nation already involved in the battle, this stack is considered as a reinforcement. It will join the side of the stack of its nation already there, but will suffer losses onluy when the previous same nationality stack has been eliminated.

Case of Amphibious Landings
If the land units arrive in the same move as the naval units, it means they are onboard the ships and must thus land in the region to fight. As indicated above, the naval defending units must first be eliminated (if present) before the amphibious attack may take place. All losses suffered on transporting ships will be inflicted on the transported units if necessary.
Should the attacking fleet lose the naval battle, then no landing takes place and the whole attacking stack retreats.

Case of Naval Raids
A combat that involves only naval units will be handled in the same way as a land battle, with one exception: at the end of the 20th combat round, region possession will be allocated to the only side that has land units there.
As a rule, ships are quite useful to transport land units and raid enemy fleets, but are otherwise useless when it comes to possession of regions.

NB : after conquest, region information is updated (see 6.9 above)

Retreat (all seasons)
Land Retreat
The attacker must always retreat back to the region when it came from. If this region no longer belongs to him at the time of retreat, then the whole stack is eliminated.
The defender will always retreat into a friendly adjacent region. If there are none, it is eliminated too.

Naval Retreat
Naval retreat of the attacker depends on two factors: first if the fleet is based in the same theater as the target region, and second if this is a naval raid or a landing.

If this is a raid, the fleet retreats back to its port of origin, or is sunk if the latter no longer belongs to the attacker.

If this is a landing, a check is made on where the units come from originally:

 If they come from the same theater, then the land units (onboard) AND the naval units retreat back to the port of origin (unless the latter no longer belongs to them, in which case they are eliminated).
 If they come from a different theater, then the land units are eliminated and the naval units retreat to their port of origin (unless the latter no longer belongs to them, in which case they are eliminated)

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