The computer determines the victor of all battles and completes all movements.


6.4.1 The outcome of combat is affected by terrain and offensive and defensive modifiers. Terrain Modifiers: they modify combat in favor of the defender. The higher the number, the greater the benefit to the defender and the more difficult for the attacker. The terrain factors remain constant from game to game and are the same in the standard and historical scenarios. See the Appendix for terrain factors. Offensive and Defensive Factors: The factors are inherent to army and navy units. They reflect training and experience. See the Major Country Comparison Chart (Figure 3.1.1) for the offensive and defensive factors of the Major countries. The lower the number, the better the army or navy is at offense or defense. The armies of Minor countries have their defensive factors are randomly set at the start of each new Standard Game. For the historical scenarios a rating determined by combining the number of the troops and the ability of the troops is given for each Minor country. The rating (called Military Rank) is given as A, B, C, or D, with A indicating the strongest defense and D the weakest. See the Appendix for these ratings. Armies and navies that are not plotted to move will defend the regions they are stationed in from enemy assaults. During the Combat Phase, after you have successfully entered (i.e. conquered if it was not yours beforehand) a region, you become the defender of that region. For the remainder of the Combat Phase, should you be attacked in that region, the rules for retreat of a defender apply.


6.4.2 Combat consists of twenty rounds of battle. Each round is made up of fleet vs. fleet combat and army vs. army combat. The order of combat resolution is the same as that of play (Britain, Germany, France, USA, Japan, Russia). Thus, you might send a fleet or army as a reinforcement to a region you control, only to find that another Major country has in the meantime defeated your garrison and now controls the region. Your reinforcing troops then become attacking troops. Fleet vs. Fleet Combat: In a naval assault (ships carrying troops attack a port), a victorious attacker’s armies attack the enemy army garrison. If the armies are victorious, they remain there, and the fleet controls the port.

If the naval assault takes place in the Theater of the attacker’s home port (the port from which they sailed) and the attack fails, the transported armies are returned to the home port. If the home port has been captured in the interim, then the transported armies and the fleets are destroyed.

If the naval assault takes place in a Theater different from the Theater of the attacker’s home port (the port from which the fleets sailed) and the attack fails, then all the transported armies are destroyed. The fleets return to the home port if it is available. If it is no longer available, then the fleets are destroyed.

In a naval assault, a defeated defending fleet retreats to a friendly port in the same Theater. If no such port exists, the fleet is destroyed.

Unusual situations may develop. The following could occur: at a particular moment, Germanycontrols South Africa, North Germany, and Sweden. Germany sends fleets from South Africa to North Germany. At the end of the Combat Phase, the player looks for his fleets in North Germany, but finds that they are now in Sweden. During the Combat Phase, the fleets successfully entered Berlin. The fleets became the Defenders of North Germany, now considered their home port A player following Germany in the order of play attacked North Germany and the fleets, according to the rules applicable to defending fleets, were forced to retreat to a friendly port within the Theater. Thus, at the end of the Combat Phase, the fleets are seen in Sweden. Army vs. Adjacent Army: If an attacker loses a battle, the armies are forced to retreat to their home region (i.e. the region from which they have come). However, if that attacker’s home region has been captured in the interim, then the attacker’s armies are destroyed.

Example: The USA sends 10,000 troops from Brazil to attack Argentina. At the same time, the British navy assaults Braziland defeats the US garrison. If the USA’s forces are defeated by the Argentine armies, then all of the remaining USA attackers are destroyed because they cannot return to the region from which they came. If a defender loses a battle, the defending armies retreat to an adjacent friendly region. If no such region exists, the armies are destroyed.

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